Hodgson included Kane in his 24-man squad for the March 27 Euro 2016 Group E qualifier against Lithuania at Wembley and the friendly against Italy later this month.
The 21-year-old is the top scoring Englishman in the Premier League with 16 goals.
There was also a recall for Liverpool striker Daniel Sturridge, who was injured in September for England and has missed the last five internationals.
Hodgson named only two goalkeepers, leaving a berth open for England Under-21 keeper Jack Butland who may be added to the squad later.
Kane, the one uncapped player in squad, is another product of the England youth system having played for the Under-17s through to the Under-21s and Hodgson said he was delighted with his progress this season.
“I think the whole country is excited about Harry,” he told reporters at Wembley.
“His rise has been fantastic since he broke into the Tottenham team. He has done so well and it would have been much more of a surprise if he had not been selected, so I am delighted for him.”
England have six wins in six matches since their first round exit from the World Cup last year and Hodgson said he was delighted with the progress the team has made with new, younger players.
However, Kane would have to fight for his place in the starting line-up.
“We have done quite well since the World Cup with six straight wins, and the players who have been playing in those games have done a good job,” said Hodgson.
“So its not as simple as a new player coming in and the ones who have played stepping aside. The ones he is competing with won’t want to step aside.”
Fraser Forster (Southampton), Joe Hart (Manchester City)
Leighton Baines (Everton), Gary Cahill (Chelsea), Nathaniel Clyne (Southampton), Kieran Gibbs (Arsenal), Phil Jagielka (Everton), Phil Jones (Manchester United), Luke Shaw (Manchester United), Chris Smalling (Manchester United), Kyle Walker (Tottenham)
Ross Barkley (Everton), Michael Carrick (Manchester United), Fabian Delph (Aston Villa), Jordan Henderson (Liverpool), Adam Lallana (Liverpool), James Milner (Man City), Raheem Sterling (Liverpool), Andros Townsend (Tottenham), Theo Walcott (Arsenal)
Harry Kane (Tottenham), Wayne Rooney (Manchester United), Daniel Sturridge (Liverpool), Danny Welbeck (Arsenal)
(Reporting by Mike Collett, editing by Alan Baldwin)